What is the broad definiton of literature? What kind of approach wold that be?
includes all written/printed works that are put in the right context (eg. ready-made art pieces)
What is the narrow definiton of literature? What kind of approach wold that be?
only “high culture” works are literature
What 6 roles can literature take?
foregrounding of language
multiply interpretable meaning
intertextual and selfreflective construct
What are the four basic concepts of literature?
What is the mometic concept of literature?
focus on the relationship between text and context
literature should aim at imitating reality as well as possible (Aristotle)
literary realism: george eliot, …
What is the pragmatic concept of literature?
focus on the relationship between text and audience
Horace: function of literature is to teach and delight the reader
literature can have a didactic purpose
example authors: Charles Dickens, George Orwell
What is the expressive concept of literature?
focus on the relationship between text and author
literature as the subjective and original expression of the authors personality and imagination
roots in the romantic period
example authors: James Joyce
What is the objective concept of literature?
focus on the text itself as a purely aesthetic object with no connection to reality
text-intrinsic approach, rejecting all mimetic and moral functions of literature
example oscar wilde
What is the Canon?
a “definitive” list of books that everyone should read
not naturally created, it is influenced by the dominant group
Nünning: the canon are texts that are considered artistically superior
What are the two sides of “the canon wars”?
traditionalists: in favour of centering the curriculum on classic works of literature
culturalists: want to “open up” the canon to fix the issues of representation that run deep
What would be the pros about keeping the canon?
necessary tool for literary discussions
pragmatic use (time)
books are recognized for their aesthetic merit and seemingly equal
What would be the cons about keeping the canon?
essentialist view on literature
assumtion that quality is objective
political context entirely disregarded
extremely privileged postiton (tailored to represent the ruling group)
What would be the pros and cons about abolishing the canon?
pro: no endless discussions anymore
cons: no common ground for discussions
What would be the pros about changing the canon?
possibility to add items that were previously disregarded
encourages literary invention
What would be the cons about changing the canon?
difficult, laborous process
doesn’t address the fact that some groups were banned from writing historically and CAN’T be represented
What are Harold Bloom’s arguments for the canon?
natural, innate distinction between “good” and “bad” literature
some might never get it
critics fail to grasp true qualities of literature
retroactively introducing works doesn’t mean good literary analysis
What are Isabel Waidners ideas with “Liberating the Canon”?
project to redress and redo the canon
done by introducing innovative literature to the canon
innovation historically done by those in power
project gives power back to those who were disadvantaged