What is a variety?
a set of language habits shared by a certain group of speakers, a language system that has rules
What is a dialect?
different from the standard variety in pronounciation, vocabulary and grammatical form
what are social markers?
linguistic feature that marks the speaker as a member of a certain group (eg postvocalic r)
what is the standard variation?
idealized version of the language associated with commercial centres, education, etc
What people are questioned for dialect surveys?
believed to have been less influenced from the outside
HOWEVER surveys done with norms often show an outdated result of a dialect
what is an isogloss?
a line drawn on a map to seperate two areas whose people have different terms for one specific linguistic item
what is the dialect continuum?
regional variations don’t exist with sharp breaks, they rather merge into each other and exist along a continuum
What are creoles?
pidgins that developed from a contact language to a first lamguage (creolization)
has a fully developed grammar/lexicon and native speakers now
What are pidgins?
= contact languages
a simplified form of speech developed foreg trade between people who share no language
there are no native speakers of pidgins
rudimentary grammar and lexicon
lexifier language = main source of words adopted in the pidgin
what is diaglossia?
a situation where there is a “high/special” variety of a language uswed in formal situtaions and a “low” variety used locally
(eg swiss german vs high swiss german)
What is a lingua franca?
a lamguage used as means of communication among people who have no native language i common (but share a second language)
every language can be a LF, but E is most common
What is described by the inner circle in the Kachru model?
US, UK, CAN, AUS, NZ
ENL (e as native language)
first dispersal - new world
What is described by the outer circle in the Kachru model?
India, Ghana, Kenya, …
ESL (e as second language)
second dispersal - colonisation
What is described by the expanding circle in the Kachru model?
china, egypt, japan, korea, ussr, …
EFL (e as a foreign language)
third dispersal - global english
disadvamtages of the Kachru circle model?
based on history/geography, suggests hierarchy between countries, doesn’t account for proficiency, grey areas
What is hymes SPEAKING heuristic?
Setting (time, place)
ends (purpose, goal)
activities/ act sequence
key (tone, mood)
norms (socio-cultural rules)
genre (type of event, poem, essay, lecture)
briefly explain Labov’s departement store study
done to analyze the postvocalic-r
in US: low class r was weak
higher class r was stronger
UK other way round
examples for social markers?
pronounciation of -ing at the end (weak in working class),
h-dropping (Uk working cass)
what is the snowball effect?
the more people speak a language, the more useful it gets -> even more people want to learn it
what is convergence in communication?
when people try to match/accomodate the speaker they communicate with
(create symmetrical situation)