Describe Mosquito bite prevention.
Exercise particular caution during peak biting periods
Protective clothing (covering most of the skin, light colors)
Mosquito repellent, such as DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide)
Reduce breeding sites (e.g., eliminate pools of water, optimize plant watering)
Describe Malaria prophylaxis.
Should be initiated before traveling to regions with a high risk of malaria, e.g., tropical Africa, Asia, and Central/South America
Drug of choice is based on the region traveled and Plasmodium species
Areas with P. falciparum
If chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum (most malaria endemic regions): atovaquone-proguanil, doxycycline, mefloquine
If chloroquine-sensitive P. falciparum: chloroquine
Areas without P. falciparum (some areas of Central/South America, Mexico, China, South Korea): primaquine
Agents that are safe during pregnancy: chloroquine, mefloquine
Describe standby emergency treatment.
Traveling to endemic regions with a medium to high risk of malaria
Depending on the risk, either prophylactic or standby emergency treatment may be recommended (when in doubt: prophylactic medication).
Chloroquine with limitations: there are now many chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium strains with membrane pumps that lower intracellular chloroquine concentrations