Briefly describe the use of loperamide.
Can not pass the blood-brain barrier (low abuse potential due to lack of central opioid effects)
Inhibits propulsive peristalsis, increases sphincter tone, and inhibits intestinal fluid secretion
Adverse effects include constipation, vomiting, and nausea.
Pediatric patients <2 years of age.
Known hypersensitivity to loperamide or any ingredient in the formulation.
Abdominal pain in the absence of diarrhea.
Acute dysentery (characterized by blood in stools and high fever), acute ulcerative colitis, bacterial enterocolitis caused by invasive organisms (e.g., Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter), or pseudomembranous colitis associated with anti-infective therapy.
Describe the mechanism of action.
Slows intestinal motility and affects water and electrolyte movement through the bowel. Inhibits peristaltic activity by a direct effect on circular and longitudinal muscles of the intestinal wall.
Prolongs the transit time of intestinal contents; [ref] reduces fecal volume, increases fecal viscosity and bulk density, and diminishes loss of fluid and electrolytes.