Describe the epidemiology.
Incidence is 1:1000–10,000 pregnancies
More commonly affects multiparous individuals (75%)
The majority of cases occur in the third trimester (50%), followed by the early postpartum period (38%), and the first and second trimester (12%)
Describe the etiology.
most commonly gallstones, heavy alcohol use, and familial hypertriglyceridemia
Physiologic changes during pregnancy such as altered progesterone and estrogen levels increase the risk of choledocholithiasis.
↑ Progesterone → ↑ pressure on the sphincter of Oddi → bile stasis
Estrogen alters the composition of bile, making it more lithogenic.
Describe the diagnostics.
May show physiologic alterations due to pregnancy (e.g., leukocytosis, increased serum amylase and lipase)
If amylase and/or lipase are > 3 times greater than normal, acute pancreatitis is likely 
Imaging: abdominal ultrasound or MRI are preferred (e.g., to identify choledocholithiasis or complications of acute pancreatitis such as hemorrhage, edema, or pseudocysts)