Describe the use of diagnostic tests.
Diagnosis is mainly based on the clinical picture.
Cranial ultrasonography (early neonatal period): e.g., intracerebral hemorrhage and/or hypoxic-ischemic injury, structural abnormalities
MRI (in older infants): to detect causative lesion (e.g., periventricular leukomalacia, congenital malformation, intracranial hemorrhage)
Progressive muscular dystrophies
Traumatic peripheral nerve lesions
Describe the nonpharmacological management.
There is no curative therapy for cerebral palsy. Management is dependent on the severity and nature of symptoms. A multidisciplinary approach is employed in management to improve function and quality of life.
Physical therapy: prevent muscle contractures
Occupational therapy: motor skill development
Speech therapy: communication skills and dysphagia
Orthotic devices (e.g., braces, splints, and casts) and assistive devices (e.g., wheelchairs, walkers)
Educational support for intellectual disability
Nutritional support for dysphagia
Social and psychological support
Describe the pharmacological management and surgery.
Antispasmodics (e.g., botulinum toxin, baclofen, dantrolene, benzodiazepines)
Anticholinergics for rigidity and sialorrhea
Surgery: orthopedic surgery to treat scoliosis, relieve contractures, and neurosurgical management of spasms