Exam question

by sami S.

 Name four scientific disciplines, which are part of (marine) geology in a broad sense. 6 total

·       Sedimentology

à Study of modern sediments such as sand, silt, clay and the processes which lead to their formation (erosion, weathering), transport, deposition and diagenesis. Interpretation of geological history through observations of sedimentary rocks and sedimentary structures

·       Tectonics

à Process that controls the structure and properties of the Earth’s crust and its evolution through time. In particular, it describes the processes of mountain building, growth and behavior of strong, old cores of continents known as cratons, and the ways in which the relatively rigid plates that constitute the Earth’s outer shell interact with each other. Plate tectonics describes the large-scale features on Earth’s surface.

·       Volcanology

à Study of volcanoes, lava, magma, and related geological, geophysical and geochemical phenomena

·       Micro-Paleontology

à Paleontology = study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene (11,700 BP). It includes the study of fossils to determine organisms’ evolution and interactions with each other and their environments (their paleoecology). Fossils are used to age date sediment layers -> stratigraphy

·       Bio-Geochemistry

à Geochemistry uses the tools and principles of chemistry to explain the mechanisms behind major geological systems such as the Earth’s crust and its oceans. In marine biogeochemistry processes and rates of material turnover in the upper sediment column causing changes to the sediment are studied

·       Seismology

à Study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through Earth or planet-like bodies. Also includes earthquake effects such as tsunamis as well as seismic sources like volcanic, tectonic, artificial processes. Seismic mapping uses artificial pressure waves to visualize the sub-surface structures on land and in the ocean bottom


sami S.


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