What information do we get out of a transferfunction?
A transfer function is a mathematical representation of a system's input-output relationship.
With the help of a transfer function we can determine if a system is stable or unstable by looking at its poles.
> if all poles of a system are present on the left half plane the system will be stable —> the Output will be finit in stady state (time at which the system gives the final output)
>if only one pole is in the right side of the plane the system will be unstable —> Output at stady state is infinit.
> if the system has complex conjugated poles on the imaginary axes the system will be marginally stable —> output will oszillate between two finite values (e.g. sine wave)
+Frequency response: The transfer function can be used to determine how the system responds to different frequencies of input signals. This can be useful for designing filters and other signal processing systems.
+Gain: The transfer function can provide information on the gain of the system, or how much the input signal is amplified or attenuated by the system.
What are system analogies?
system analogies refer to the similarities between different physical systems that can be described by the same mathematical equations or models. Basically it allows converting a given system of a certain domain (mechanical) into another domain (electical).
Systems which are governed by the same types of equations are called analogous systems. When we deal with systems other than electrical, there are distinct advantages if we can reduce the systems under consideration to their analogous electrical circuits
Since electrical or electronic systems can be built up easily, it is easier to build such a system rather than build up a mechanical or hydraulic system for experimental studies
Emebedded Systems (structure, application)
Are processor‐based system designed to perform a few
dedicated functions, often in real‐time.
Memory: RAM (random access memory) and ROM (read-only memory)
Input/Output (I/O) devices
Real-time clock (RTC)
Peripherals: Additional hardware components, such as timers, watchdog timers, analog-to-digital converters, and pulse-width modulation (PWM) modules, that provide additional functionality to the system.
Errors in nummerical methods?
Is the error created by truncating (approximating) a mathematical procedure
round off error
Example —> pi (it is not using the exact value)
What are Problem Space and Computing Space (+Examples)
The Problem Space is the environment where a problem must be solved
Example —> vehicle Funktions
The Computing Space is the environment where a software
solution is implemented
Is where all the tools, strategies, techniques, mechanisms, and processes related to software development and execution are encountered
Example —> onboard ECUs of the vehicle
(ECU = Engine control unit)
What is the definition of a system?
A system is a collection of parts that work together following a set of rules to achieve a common goal. It is affected by its surroundings and interacts with them. To understand a system, we need to know its boundaries, how its parts are arranged, and what it's meant to do. We can see how the system works by observing how it functions.
Difference between validation and verification?
verification focuses on whether the product was built correctly, while validation focuses on whether the right product was built. Verification is a process of examining and testing the product, whereas validation involves testing the product in its intended environment to ensure it meets the user's needs and expectations.
Describe Function developing process with V-model!
The following is a description of the function developing process with the V-model, considering the following steps:
Step- Implementation: Implementation of independent Software components or moduls accordig to the component Specification. Benefits are that the moduls/components can be tested independet from other in the Unit-test
Step- Design: In this phase, different components from step 1 are beeing put together. The design phase includes the creation software architecture, and detailed design of individual modules.
Step- Specification: This phase involves the creation of the detailed functional requirements of the software. The requirements specification defines what the software should do and how it should do it. The former components are now all conected to form a whole system.
Step- Requirements: This is the first phase of the software development life cycle. In this phase, the business requirements for the software are defined. These requirements are then analyzed, and the functional requirements for the software are derived.