Describe the manifestation of Na+/H2O retention.
Hypertension and heart failure
Pulmonary and peripheral edema
Describe the manifestations of uremia.
Definition: Uremia is defined as the accumulation of toxic substances due to decreased renal excretion. These toxic substances are mostly metabolites of proteins such as urea, creatinine, β2 microglobulin, and parathyroid hormone.
Nausea and vomiting
Loss of appetite
Uremic fetor: characteristic ammonia- or urine-like breath odor
Skin color changes (e.g., hyperpigmentation, pallor due to anemia)
Uremic frost: uremia leads to high levels of urea secreted in the sweat, the evaporation of which may result in tiny crystallized yellow-white urea deposits on the skin.
Uremic pericarditis: a complication of chronic kidney disease that causes fibrinous pericarditis
Clinical features: chest pain worsened by inhalation
Physical examination findings
Friction rub on auscultation
ECG changes normally seen in nonuremic pericarditis (e.g., diffuse ST-segment elevation) are not usually seen.
Signs of uremic encephalopathy
Peripheral neuropathy → paresthesias
Leukocyte dysfunction → ↑ risk of infection
↑ Bleeding tendency caused by abnormal platelet adhesion and aggregation 
Kidney OUTAGES: hyperKalemia, renal Osteodystrophy, Uremia, Triglyceridemia, Acidosis (metabolic), Growth delay, Erythropoietin deficiency (anemia), Sodium/water retention (consequences of chronic kidney disease)