Describe the etiology.
Mechanism of injury 
Fall onto greater trochanter/lateral hip
Forced lateral rotation (e.g., from tripping)
Chronic overburdening can lead to insufficiency fractures, which can then completely fracture spontaneously.
Pathological fracture due to metastases
Children and young adults: high-s
List risk factors.
Osteoporosis (especially postmenopausal women and older individuals)
Difficulty walking and impaired coordination
Low body weight
Poor nutrition (vitamin
X-ray hip and pelvis (first line) 
Hip: AP view and lateral views
Pelvis: AP view
MRI hip and pelvis: preferred if an occult fracture is suspected 
Other: CT hip or bone scan
What are complications?
Osteonecrosis of the femoral head
Chronic pain and posttraumatic arthritis
Nerve injury, e.g., sciatic nerve injury
Describe the prognosis.
Intracapsular fractures (e.g., femoral head and neck fractures) have an increased rate of nonunion which leads to AVN
Intertrochanteric fractures have a good prognosis following surgery
Subtrochanteric fractures have a high rate of implant failure
Hip fractures have a high rate of associated morbidity and mortality in older adults.
Describe the prevention.
Fall risk assessment, for example with the Tinetti-Test, which is used to evaluate a patient's gait and balance.
Implementation of fall prevention strategies.
Early preventative efforts such as fall training, physical therapy, removal of tripping hazards, appropriate shoes, etc.