Europe and Africa Wk 2 Chap 2

by Rosa B.

African slave trade

The African slave trade was a period of time in which enslaved people from Africa were forcibly transported to Europe, primarily to the countries of Portugal, Spain, France, and England. This trade was highly favored over the trade of enslaved people from Eastern Europe due to the exotic nature of dark-skinned people. The African slave trade began in the 15th century and lasted until the 19th century, with millions of Africans being taken from their homes and sold into slavery. The majority of these enslaved people were taken from West and Central Africa, and were used to work in the plantations and mines of the Americas. The African slave trade was a brutal and inhumane practice, with many of the enslaved people dying during the voyage due to the harsh conditions they were subjected to. The African slave trade had a lasting impact on the African continent, with many of the enslaved people never returning to their homeland and their descendants still living in the Americas today.

Agricultural Revolution

The Agricultural Revolution was a period of significant agricultural development that began in the 1400s and contributed to increased crop production and population growth. This period saw the introduction of new farming techniques, such as crop rotation, the use of fertilizers, and the introduction of new crops and livestock. These advances allowed for increased yields and more efficient use of land, leading to a population boom and the emergence of new social and economic structures. The Agricultural Revolution also saw the emergence of new technologies, such as the plow, which allowed for deeper and more efficient tilling of the soil. This period of agricultural development had a profound impact on the development of society, and its effects are still felt today.

Akbar the Great

Akbar the Great was a Mughal ruler who began the Mughal golden age in 1556 and expanded the empire’s territory. He was known for his religious tolerance and his policy of allowing his Indian subjects to keep their languages and religions. He was a great military leader and was able to conquer much of the Indian subcontinent. He was also a great administrator and was able to create a strong and unified government. He was a patron of the arts and literature and was responsible for the construction of many beautiful buildings and monuments. He was also a great reformer and was responsible for the introduction of many reforms in the Mughal Empire. He was a great leader and his reign is remembered as one of the most prosperous and peaceful periods in Indian history.


Armenians are an ethnic group originating from the Armenian Highlands, a region located in the South Caucasus between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. They are one of the oldest ethnic groups in the world, with a recorded history of over 3,000 years. In the early 1600s, hundreds of thousands of Armenians were welcomed to Isfahan, a city in Iran, from the disputed border region separating the Shiite Safavid Empire from the Sunni Ottoman Empire. Armenians are predominantly Christian, with the majority belonging to the Armenian Apostolic Church, an Oriental Orthodox church. They are known for their unique culture, which includes a distinct language, literature, cuisine, and art. Armenians have a long history of diaspora, with communities established in many countries around the world.

Crisis in Religion

Crisis in Religion is a period of doubt and questioning of traditional religious beliefs that is caused by the new scientific discoveries of the Enlightenment. This period of doubt and questioning is often characterized by a re-evaluation of the traditional religious beliefs and practices that had been accepted for centuries. During this period, individuals and societies are forced to confront the implications of the new scientific discoveries and the potential for them to challenge the traditional religious beliefs. This period of doubt and questioning can lead to a re-examination of the religious beliefs and practices, and can even lead to a complete rejection of traditional religious beliefs in favor of more modern, scientific beliefs. This period of crisis in religion can be a difficult and challenging time for individuals and societies, as they grapple with the implications of the new scientific discoveries and the potential for them to challenge traditional religious beliefs.

Dark Ages

The Dark Ages is a period of European history that lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. During this time, Europe experienced political instability, economic decline, and cultural stagnation. This period was marked by the fall of the Roman Empire, the rise of feudalism, and the spread of Christianity. Political instability was caused by the lack of a strong central government, leading to the rise of local rulers and the fragmentation of power. Economic decline was caused by the decline of trade and the lack of technological advancement. Cultural stagnation was caused by the lack of new ideas and the lack of cultural exchange between different regions. The Dark Ages were a difficult period for Europe, but it eventually led to the Renaissance and the Age of Exploration.


Feudalism was a system of political and economic organization in medieval Europe, in which land was held by a lord in exchange for service or labor. This system was based on the granting of land by a monarch or other powerful figure to a vassal in exchange for loyalty, military service, and other obligations. The vassal, in turn, would grant land to lesser vassals, who would then grant land to still lesser vassals, and so on. This hierarchical system of landholding was known as the feudal pyramid. The lord of the land was responsible for protecting and providing for his vassals, while the vassals were expected to provide military service and other services to the lord. This system of landholding and service was the basis of the medieval economy, and it was the primary form of social organization in Europe for centuries.

Forced Migration of Africans to the Americas

Forced Migration of Africans to the Americas refers to the large-scale movement of African people to the Americas during the Transatlantic Slave Trade. This movement was largely involuntary, as millions of Africans were forcibly taken from their homes and transported to the Americas against their will. This forced migration was significantly larger than the number of Europeans who went to the Americas voluntarily, with nearly six times more Africans being sent to the Americas than Europeans. This forced migration of Africans to the Americas had a lasting impact on the culture, economy, and demographics of the Americas, and is still felt today.

Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire was a loose confederation of German states and principalities in central Europe that existed from the 10th to the 19th century. It was founded in 962 by Otto I, the first Holy Roman Emperor, and was a major political and cultural force in Europe for centuries. The Empire was composed of numerous independent states, each with its own laws, customs, and rulers. The Emperor was the head of the Empire, but his power was limited by the various states. The Empire was divided into three main parts: the Kingdom of Germany, the Kingdom of Italy, and the Kingdom of Burgundy. The Empire was also divided into numerous smaller states, such as the Duchy of Bavaria, the Electorate of Saxony, and the Archbishopric of Mainz. The Empire was a major center of art, literature, and science, and was home to many famous figures, such as Martin Luther, Johannes Gutenberg, and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. The Empire was dissolved in 1806, after the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte.

Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was a period of rapid economic and technological development in Europe that began in the late 18th century and continued into the early 19th century. It was characterized by the introduction of new manufacturing processes, the development of new sources of energy, the emergence of new forms of transportation, and the growth of large-scale industry. During this period, the production of goods increased dramatically, leading to a dramatic rise in the standard of living for many people. The Industrial Revolution also saw the emergence of new social classes, the growth of cities, and the emergence of a global economy. It was a period of great change and progress, and it had a lasting impact on the world.

Mediterranean Trade

Mediterranean Trade is a type of trade that is dominated by Italian merchants. It is a type of trade that involves the exchange of goods and services between countries located around the Mediterranean Sea. This type of trade has been in existence since ancient times and has been an important part of the economy of the region. It involves the exchange of goods such as food, spices, textiles, and other commodities. The merchants involved in this type of trade are usually from Italy, but other countries in the region such as Spain, Greece, and Turkey also participate in this type of trade. Mediterranean Trade is an important part of the global economy and has been a major contributor to the development of the region


Metropolises are large cities that serve as major centers of commerce, government, and Church administration. They are typically the most populous cities in their respective countries or regions, and are often the cultural, economic, and political hubs of their respective regions. Metropolises are often characterized by their high population density, diverse population, and wide range of economic activities. They are typically home to a variety of industries, including finance, technology, manufacturing, and tourism. Additionally, they often serve as the headquarters of major corporations, and are often the sites of important government buildings, such as courthouses, city halls, and state capitols. Metropolises are also often home to a variety of cultural attractions, such as museums, theaters, and parks.

Portuguese Slave Traders

Portuguese Slave Traders were merchants from Portugal who engaged in the practice of buying and selling African slaves in the Kongo kingdom during the 16th and 17th centuries. They were known for their indiscriminate practices, taking people of all social statuses, including those of high social standing, as slaves. They would often use force and coercion to capture and transport their victims, and would often sell them to other countries in the Americas and Europe. Portuguese Slave Traders were a major factor in the transatlantic slave trade, and their actions had a devastating impact on the Kongo kingdom and its people.

Protestant Reformation

The Protestant Reformation was a 16th-century religious movement in Europe, led by Martin Luther, which sought to reform the Catholic Church and create a new form of Christianity. It was a period of spiritual, political, and social upheaval that resulted in the establishment of Protestantism as a major branch of Christianity. The Reformation began with Luther's 95 Theses, which he posted on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg, Germany in 1517. Luther's theses challenged the authority of the Pope and the Catholic Church, and argued for the supremacy of Scripture as the source of religious authority. This sparked a period of religious and political upheaval, as Luther's ideas spread throughout Europe. The Reformation also had a major impact on the political and social landscape of Europe, as it led to the establishment of Protestant states and the weakening of the Catholic Church's power. The Reformation also had a major impact on the development of modern science, as it encouraged the questioning of traditional beliefs and the pursuit of knowledge.


The Renaissance was a period of European history from the 14th to the 17th century, characterized by a revival of classical learning and the arts. This period saw a renewed interest in the classical cultures of Ancient Greece and Rome, as well as a flourishing of creativity and innovation in the fields of literature, art, music, philosophy, science, and politics. During this time, the ideas of humanism, individualism, and secularism began to take hold, and the concept of the individual as an agent of change was embraced. This period also saw the rise of the merchant class, the development of banking and finance, and the growth of cities and trade. The Renaissance was a time of great intellectual and cultural achievement, and its influence can still be seen in the modern world.

Russian Empire

The Russian Empire was a multi-ethnic and multi-confessional state that was established in the 16th century by Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible). It was formed out of the resistance to Mongol rule and the fall of Constantinople, and Ivan declared himself Tsar of all the Russias. The Russian Empire was one of the largest empires in history, stretching from the Baltic Sea in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east, and from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Black Sea and the Caucasus in the south. It was a major European power and a great military force, and its influence extended to Central Asia, the Middle East, and parts of North America. The Russian Empire was a highly centralized autocracy, with the Tsar as the absolute ruler. It was a multi-ethnic state, with over 100 ethnic groups, and the official language was Russian. The Russian Empire was a major cultural and economic force in Europe, and its capital, St. Petersburg, was a major center of the arts and sciences. The Russian Empire was eventually dissolved in 1917 following the Russian Revolution.


Rosa B.


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